Cruise Ship Speakers

Writing
  Click on photo for full profile and contact details.

Dr Norman Berdichevsky
Cultural & Social Geography
Coming from: Orlando,  Florida  USA
Dr Norman Berdichevsky is a Freelance lecturer, teacher, translator, writer, researcher, editor, cruise enrichment speaker, interpreter, tutor, and community events manager with sophisticated communications skills; He has forty-five years’ experience teaching at university, college, and junior college levels in the United States, Denmark, Spain and Israel – 6 published books, more than 300 articles in a variety of American, British, Danish, Spanish and Israeli journals; fluent in Hebrew, Danish, Spanish and Esperanto and has conducted many cruise enrichment lectures.

Paul Brown
Maritime Historian & Author
Coming from: Welford,  Northamptonshire  UK
Dr Paul Brown is a maritime history author and speaker. He is a consultant to National Historic Ships, the UK’s authority on the preservation of historic ships and boats, and a maritime photographer. A member of the Society for Nautical Research, he was until recently a university lecturer and senior university manager, and has also lectured at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich.

Peter Clayton
Classical & European Archaeology and Egyptology
FCILIP, Dip.Arch, FSA, FRNS
Coming from: Hemel Hempstead,  Hertfordshire  UK
Peter is an Egyptologist, archaeologist and numismatist who has excavated on sites in England and Egypt. A Fellow of the Society of Antiquities of London, he has lectured widely in England, in most of the major museums and universities, and in Europe and Australia. Peter is a best-selling author of "Chronicle of the Pharaohs" and expert Advisor for coins and antiquities to several museums.

Judith Cranswick
Crime Writer, Tutor & Destination Speaker
Coming from: Swindon,  -  UK
Judith has two great passions – writing and travel. She has travelled extensively throughout Europe, China, Indochina and Japan, Asia, India, Africa and Central and South America. Judith is an award-winning novelist and author of the Fiona Mason Mysteries and several stand-alone psychological thrillers. Travel has always been the inspiration for Judith’s novels. Judith is an experienced speaker and in addition to writing her novels, she now works part time teaching Tai Chi and cruise ship lecturing.

Edwina Currie
World Affairs & Extraordinary Lives
Writer, Broadcaster, Politician, Celebrity Speaker
Coming from: Whaley Bridge,  Derbyshire  UK
Edwina was born in Liverpool, UK in 1946 and went to the Liverpool Institute, the same school as Beatles George Harrison and Sir Paul McCartney. She won a scholarship to Oxford University to read Chemistry, and then switched to Philosophy, Politics and Economics. Edwina has had three successful careers - so far! She stood for Parliament in 1983 and represented South Derbyshire for 14 years. She became one of the nation's best known MPs and served in Margaret Thatcher's government 1986-88. Edwina is also a successful author & broadcaster and has been a Celebrity speaker with many cruise lines since 1994.

Bob Ferris
Police & Criminology
Metropolitan Police 1968 - 1998
Coming from: Banstead,  Surrey  UK
Bob was born in Minehead, Somerset, in 1949. At the age of 17 he left home to join the Metropolitan Police Cadets, joining as a Constable in 1968. He served as a uniformed officer throughout his service, retiring in 1998 as an Inspector, and then worked as a Judge’s Clerk in the Court for 6 years. Since retirement he has written 5 books. He talks about his experiences in the police force and the legal system.

Jean Fullerton
Social History & Creative Writing
MSc
Coming from: Bedford,  Bedfordshire  UK
Jean was born and raised within the sound of Bow Bell’s in East London where her family have been for almost two hundred years. She has spent most of her working life as a nurse in the East End of London, first as a Sister in charge of a team, and then as a District Nurse tutor. She started writing ten years ago and enjoys all eras of history but is fascinated by the 18th and 19th century and many of her books have been set in this period.

Ann Gawthorpe
Writer & Journalist
How to write your life story.
Coming from: Bristol,  Somerset  UK
Ann is enthusiastic about helping people write their life story. Based on her book ‘How to write your Life Story and get it Published’, she has helped hundreds of people to preserve their memories for future generations through talks, workshops and courses as well as book sales.

Chris Goss
Military History
Coming from: Booker, Marlow,  Buckinghamshire  UK
After retiring from the RAF with the rank of Wing Commander in 2012, he is now a highly sought after contributor to major aviation and historical publications in UK, France and Germany. He has authored/co-authored or edited and revised 29 critically acclaimed books covering aspects of the air war over north-west Europe 1939-1945. He is a published author in France, Hungary, Czech Republic, Spain, Sweden and the USA.

Ted Harrison
Writer, Broadcaster, Journalist & Historian
PhD
Coming from: Folkestone,  Kent  UK
Ted is a writer, artist, broadcaster, cartoonist, documentary-maker, lecturer and theologian. Few can claim a top reputation in so many areas. For 20 years he was a regular and well-known voice on Radio 4 as a reporter, correspondent and presenter. He is still in demand as a broadcaster, most recently on Radio 3’s The Essay and Radio 4’s Last Word. He has a BA in politics and economics, an MA in fine art and a PhD in theology, awarded for his innovative research into stigmata. An experienced public-speaker, he once held the Guinness World Record for the longest after dinner speech!

John Haywood
Dark Age European Historian & Author
BA Hons (1st class), PhD early medieval maritime history
Coming from: Lancaster,  Lancashire  UK
Born and brought up in the north of England, Dr John Haywood studied medieval history at the universities of Lancaster and Cambridge, and Copenhagen. His doctoral dissertation, published as Dark Age Naval Power in 1991, was a study of north European seafaring before the Viking Age. The author of over 20 books, John has written on a wide range of historical topics but his main interests are the Vikings, maritime history and historical atlases. John Haywood formerly taught medieval history at Lancaster University, but since 2002 has been a full-time writer and tour leader and lectures on cruise ships.

Andrew Hignell
Cricket & Sports Historian
Scorer and Archivist to Glamorgan County Cricket Club
Coming from: Cardiff,  Wales  UK
Andrew is the Scorer and Archivist to Glamorgan County Cricket Club who are Wales’ sole representative in professional cricket. Andrew caught the cricket bug as a young schoolboy growing up in Cardiff following Glamorgan’s success in winning the 1969 County Championship. He subsequently read Geography at Exeter University, before completing a PhD at Cardiff University and then taught Geography until 2004 when he "retired" to take up his post with Glamorgan CCC. He is widely acknowledged as one of the country’s leading cricket historians and statisticians.

Peter Hobday
Broadcaster & Author
CELEBRITY
Coming from: London,    UK
Peter Hobday is one of Britain's best known broadcasters. He wrote and presented "Masterworks" every morning on Radio Three until January 2000, and for 14 years he was a presenter of the early morning BBC Radio news show "Today", required listening for politicians, business leaders and opinion-formers in Britain. He is an author and is also in demand as a public speaker and conference chairman.

David Hutchings
Maritime Historian & Author
I Eng; MRINA
Coming from: Lee-on-The Solent,  Hampshire  UK
David hails from Cowes on the Isle of Wight, so ships and the sea have played a major part in his life. He turned his lifelong love of ships into a career, both as a maritime author and in shipbuilding. David's shipyard career was spent in Southampton and Portsmouth. He is a member of The World Ship Society and the Ocean Liner Society. He regularly lectures on cruiseships about maritime history and ocean liner history.

Robert Kershaw
Military Historian & Author
Coming from: Salisbury,  Wiltshire  UK
Born in 1950 and a graduate of Reading University, Robert Kershaw joined the Parachute Regiment in 1973. He served numerous regimental appointments until commanding the 10th Battalion The Parachute Regiment (10 PARA). He speaks fluent German and has extensive experience with NATO, multinational operations and all aspects of operations and training. When he left the Army in 2006 he became a full-time author of military history and battlefield tour guide, and lecturer.

Jeannette Kupfermann
Social Anthropologist, Broadcaster & Journalist
BA (Hons), Mphil
Coming from: Berkshire,    UK
Jeannette was best known perhaps as the television critic for the Daily Mail between 1980 and 1995 as well as popular columns in the Telegraph, Sunday Times, and her current pieces in the Mail and Mail on Sunday. She trained as an anthropologist specialising in religious sects and symbols, but then followed a career in Fleet Street. Her diverse range of talks cover topics such as anthropology of fashion, her Life in Fleet Street and the Meaning of Dreams.

Robin Lloyd-Jones
Award Winning Author & Adventurer
Traveller, historian, later life researcher
Coming from: Helensburgh,  Scotland  UK
Robin spent part of his childhood in India in the last years of the British Raj. He studied social anthropology at Cambridge University, before moving to Scotland to start a career in teaching, eventually becoming the director of Scotland’s first curriculum development centre. He is an award-winning author of 11 published books, and for nearly half a century has climbed and walked in the Scottish mountains and paddled his sea kayak amongst the islands and lochs of Scotland’s amazing coastline.

Prof Nigel Maclennan
Well-being & Psychology
Doctorate, Chartered Psychologist
Coming from: Luton,    UK
Dr Nigel MacLennan is an accomplished speaker, No 1 best-selling author and former Visiting Professor at The International University in Monaco where he was consistently ranked as the No 1 professor – by the students. He has created 57 publications on subjects all connected to human psychology and performance. Nigel has a Degree in Psychology, a Diploma in Psychotherapy and Hypnotherapy, and, a Doctorate in Leadership Coaching. Nigel’s lectures are all interactive, engaging and fully illustrated with interesting and amusing images, some of which are cartoons.

Roger Mason
Personalities & Headline Events
Coming from: Leighton Buzzard,  Bedfordshire  UK
Roger is a Chartered Certified Accountant and has written 18 books, one on the subject of public speaking and the most recent, a fascinating review of the London to Birmingham railway journey. For many years a leading member of Toastmasters International, he has both won and judged many speech contests He lectures in an interesting and entertaining way, and brings the same approach to his accounts of famous personalities.

Paulette Mitchell
Cookbook Author & Enrichment Speaker
Coming from: Minneapolis,  Minnesota  USA
Paulette Mitchell, the internationally-known author of 13 cookbooks, presents lectures featuring her photos from 130 countries. She explores off-the-beaten paths capturing destinations’ intrinsic allure in the elements of cultures and cuisines. She advises guests on insightful photo composition. Among her favorite subjects are the enigmatic faces of people. Paulette’s lectures offer firsthand advice on seeing the world as a traveler rather than as a tourist. She can also provide destination-specific Signature Menus, cooking demonstrations, and classes featuring cuisines of the ports.

Sandra Mowry
Author, Historian, & Nutritionist
Destination History
Coming from: Collegeville,  Pennsylvania  USA
Sandra is an author, historian, and nutritionist. Beginning as an undergraduate history major, she continued a life-long learning process with continuing education courses, independent studies and travel. She received a Master’s degree in English, as well as naturalist training, and also certification in nutrition from the University of Pennsylvania. Sandra presents a varied range of subjects including ancient civilizations, artifacts and architecture. She has successfully presented on over 100 cruises on numerous cruise lines.

Robin Oakley OBE
Political Editor, Author & Journalist
Former Political Editor for BBC & CNN
Coming from: Wallingford,  Oxfordshire  UK
Robin Oakley is a journalist and is the author of several books on politics and horse-racing. A contributor to the international broadcaster CNN on European affairs, he has been the Turf columnist of The Spectator magazine since 1995 and is a regular after-dinner speaker. He writes too for the Financial Times. Fascinated too throughout his life by the world of horse-racing, Robin is nowadays a well-known figure on Britain’s racetracks. Robin was awarded the OBE in 2001 for services to political journalism.

Hugh Purcell
Author, Historian & Documentary Film Maker
Chevalier d'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, FRSA,MA (Cantab)
Coming from: London,    UK
Hugh was a history programme maker with the BBC for many years, ending as Managing Editor of the TV Documentary Department and winning a BAFTA for a series on the American Civil War. Since then he has turned to writing; journalism for the New Statesman and History Today and biographical books, specialising in British India, modern British history, the Vikings and Scandinavia.

Sonia Purnell
Historical Biographies
Clementine Churchill and Virginia Hall
Coming from: London,  -  UK
Sonia Purnell is a journalist known for her investigative skills and lively writing style. She began her career at The Economist Intelligence Unit before going on to edit a weekly financial magazine at only 25 years old. She has since worked for a number of high-profile newspapers, including the Daily Telegraph, Daily Mail, Independent on Sunday and the London Evening Standard. Sonia’s latest book, "FIRST LADY", explores the peculiar dynamics of the fascinating union between Clementine and Winston Churchill, a subject about which she delivers a number of talks.

Justin Reay
Art & Naval History
Coming from: Oxford,  Oxfordshire  UK
After officer training in the Royal Navy and a long career in business, Justin studied the History of Art at Oxford University. He is Lectures Secretary for the Colloquium of Learned Societies at Oxford, and a tutor in art history. He is an advisor to museums and media companies, appearing in the PSB film ‘Anthem’. He is editor of Samuel Pepys’ papers at the Bodleian Library, has written about the Admiralty buildings in London and is editing a catalogue raisonné of maritime art. In his talks Justin introduces and interprets a rich variety of art and sheds new light on naval history.

Nicholas Reed
Classical & Art History
BA (Oxon), MA (Manc) MPhil (St.A.)
Coming from: Folkestone,  Kent  UK
Nicholas took his first degree at Oxford in Greats (Latin, Greek, Ancient History and Philosophy). He was President of Oxford University Archaeological Society in 1969. From 1970 to 1986 he had 15 articles published in learned journals on subjects in Roman History and Archaeology, including articles on the Romans in Germany and on the Greek Islands. In the 1980s he moved into the field of art history, on which he is the author of some six books, mainly on the French Impressionists. He has been a lecturer for NADFAS, the fine arts organisation, since 1991.

Jonathan Rice
Author on Popular Music, Sports & Japan
Coming from: Hythe,  Kent  UK
Jonathan Rice wears many hats. For most of the time he is a consultant and lecturer on cross-cultural business links with Asia, and a specialist on international marketing and management styles. He read Japanese at Cambridge University, and then lived and worked in Japan for a dozen years. He has written three books on Japan. He is also a sports writer, having written at least a dozen books on cricket, football, golf and sports history. Since 1990, he has been specialising in national and organisational culture. He talks on the subjects of Japan, Cricket and Popular Music.

Professor Geoffrey Roberts
Soviet & Military Historian
PhD, MIlitary/Russian/Soviet/International History
Coming from: Kilbrittain,  Cork  Ireland
Professor Geoffrey Roberts is the award-winning author of Stalin's General: The Life of Georgy Zhukov (2012) - winner of the Society for Military History Distinguished Book Award for Biography. An expert on Soviet and Military History, Geoffrey is Head of the School of History at University College Cork, Ireland. He has extensive experience as a public lecturer, media commentator and contributor to popular history magazines. He has many radio and TV appearances to his credit.
In his spare time Geoffrey plays and teaches Bridge.

Robb Robinson
Maritime & British Historian & Author
PhD
Coming from: Cottingham,  East Yorkshire  UK
Robb is based at the Maritime Historical Studies Centre, part of the University of Hull. He is from a family which has been engaged in the business of seafaring for generations. He has contributed to a number of TV history programmes, is author of many articles and books and is Trustee of the British Commission for Maritime History. Robb talks on a wide range of maritime history and british history topics.

Nicholas Rodger
Naval & Maritime Historian & Author
Professor of Naval History
Coming from: Oxford,  Oxfordshire  UK
Nicholas is a naval historian, educated at Ampleforth College and University College, Oxford, after which he spent seventeen years as a Assistant Keeper in the Public Record Office. After several years Professor of Naval History in Exeter University, in 2008 he became a Senior Research Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. He has appeared in many television productions and lectured to different audiences all over the world.

David Rohl
Ancient World History & Archaeology
Ancient Egypt, Biblical History, Aegean Bronze Age, Anatolian History
Coming from: La Vall de Laguar,  Alicante  Spain
David Rohl is recognised as the UK's highest profile Egyptologist and one of the world's best-known historians. Always controversial, he is not only a best-selling writer but also an explorer, TV Presenter and internationally renowned public lecturer. With degrees in Egyptology & Archaeology, David is a genuine scholar with a full list of academic credentials but, at the same time, is seen as a highly original thinker. His cruise talks are not only interesting but thought provoking.

Richard Rosano
Novelist and Wine Writer
Wine, Food, and Travel Writer
Coming from: Potomac,  MD  USA
Dick Rosano has been writing about wine, food, and travel for many years. His long-running columns have appeared in The Washington Post, Wine Enthusiast, Country Inns, United Airlines Hemispheres magazine, and many other nationally distributed publications. In a writing career that has spanned three decades, he has been the featured commenter – in print and in person – on every region of the world. Dick has lectured on wine for the American Institute of Food and Wine, the National Italian-American Foundation, and at the Smithsonian Institution, Johns Hopkins University, and at many conferences around the United States.

Julian Ruck
Author & Political Commentator
BA (Hons.) Law
Coming from: Kidwelly,  Carmarthenshire  UK
Julian trained as a lawyer in London and has been a law lecturer and manager of LSC contracts for CAB’x in some of the most deprived areas of the country. He is a columnist, Freedom of Information campaigner, Author and more recently, a weekly guest ‘Letter from Wales’ contributor to the influential Westminster Labour Uncut. He talks on current political and social issues.

Dr Joyce Salisbury
History, Religious History & Art History
Coming from: Kissimmee,  Florida  USA
Dr.Joyce Salisbury, Professor Emerita from the University of Wisconsin - Green Bay, has a PhD in Medieval History from Rutgers University in New Jersey. She is an author of more than ten books and is also a lecturer for “Great Courses,” that produces educational DVDs. Her course “History of Spain: Land on a Crossroad” is a current best-seller. Salisbury was an award-winning teacher for over 25 years. She has done many radio shows and television interviews on her academic subjects, and since retiring in 2005, she has been teaching and lecturing on religion and medieval history while circumnavigating the globe.

Graham Sclater
Creative Writing
Author & Screenwriter - Phoenix Art Centre
Coming from: Exeter,  Devon  UK
Graham studied at the Phoenix Arts Centre in Exeter, where he concentrated on creative writing for the screen and TV. His key interests are teleplays, and screenplays as well as developing and writing original drama series’ for TV including “Pebble on the beach” set on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus, “The Other Side of the Tracks” and “Yesterday man” a psychological thriller. He appears regularly on the BBC and other radio stations around the UK and Europe on specialist music programmes. Graham frequently does book readings around the UK and this has now been extended to delivering Creative Writing Courses to guests on cruise ships.

Tim Severin
Explorer, Traveller & Author
D.Phil, Gold Medallist Royal Geographical Society
Coming from: Timoleague,  Co. Cork  Ireland
Acclaimed adventure writer and explorer Tim Severin, was born in 1940 and educated at Tonbridge School and Oxford University. He has made a career of retracing the storied journeys of mythical and historical figures and has many published books to his credit. His travels have been the subject of award winning documentary films and a major BBC documentary series title "TIME TRAVELLER". He has written regularly about his expeditions in the National Geographic Magazine and has won the Thomas Cook Travel Book award.

Bill Simpson OBE
Military/Aviation Historian, Author & Port Speaker
OBE
Coming from: Poole,  Dorset  UK
Bill Simpson served in the Royal Air Force for 25 years. Responsible for air transport operations in Northern Ireland, he was awarded an MBE in 1979. He then commanded two RAF Stations, receiving an OBE from Queen Elizabeth in 1988. Bill's acclaimed biography ‘The Prince’ was published by HarperCollins in 2006 and he now writes historical novels. Bill is an experienced enrichment and destination speaker having completed 30 cruises over 5 years and he has employed his passion for - and comprehensive knowledge of - military & aviation history to great effect. In March 2017, Bill was selected to join Viking Ocean as a Resident Historian.

Paul Sloane
Author & Speaker on Lateral Thinking & Innovation
Conference & After Dinner Speaker
Coming from: Camberley,  Surrey  UK
Paul is an entertaining and thought-provoking speaker and a recognized expert on innovation, lateral thinking and leadership. He is the author of over 20 books on lateral puzzles, creative problem-solving and lateral leadership. Paul took a first in Engineering at Cambridge. He joined IBM where he came top of Sales School. As a conference and after-dinner speaker he is renowned for the humour, challenge and stimulation of his talks on lateral thinking and innovation.

Sue Stockdale
Explorer & Adventurer
MBA Entrepreneurship, MSc Quality Management
Coming from: Swindon,  Wiltshire  UK
Sue Stockdale is a polar explorer and adventurer; author, and inspirational speaker who has undertaken more challenges to date than many people do in a lifetime. In 1996 she became the first British woman to ski to the Magnetic North Pole, and has also participated in expeditions to Chile, Antarctica, Geographical North Pole and Greenland. In her richly inspirational presentations she combines her personal expertise as a polar explorer with her profound business knowledge, including areas like Change Management, Leadership, Motivation, Risk Management and Managing Diversity.

Neil Taylor
Travel Writer
Coming from: London,  -  UK
Neil studied the then communist world at university in the late 1960s. Since then he has worked in the travel business and had started to visit both parts of Germany from 1961, the year the Berlin Wall was built and also the time when Germany had largely recovered from WWII. He has visited Germany at least once a year since then, and often several times. His interests there stretch across the centuries from medieval painting through 19th century literature to the current political situation. Neil has led tours to China and Albania. He is the author of the Bradt Travel Guides to the Baltic Cities.

Michael Turner
The Life and Voyages of Sir Francis Drake
BEd. Hons
Coming from: Burnham on Sea,  Somerset  UK
Michael Turner from Burnham-on-Sea, Somerset, England began teaching physical education and geography to secondary school students in 1982. During the holidays, he continued backpacking and hitch-hiking in 83 countries taking photographs to enhance his lessons. His other reason for adventurous travel is to be the only person in the world to photograph the life & voyages of Sir Francis Drake. This has taken him to 46 countries; which makes his illustrated talks unique. Michael has lectured to the Royal Geographical Society, London, the Old Bodleian Library, Oxford and to the Ashridge Circle, Eastbourne. Michael appeared on television and radio documentaries for the BBC and History Channel.

Marshall Ulrich
Extraordinary Life
Adventurer, Mountaineer, Extreme Athlete
Coming from: Evergreen,  Colorado  USA
The author of Running on Empty, Marshall Ulrich is a versatile, world-class extreme endurance athlete: an ultrarunning icon, Seven Summits mountaineer, and competitive adventure racer. His prolific athletic career has earned him numerous wins, records, and firsts on some of the toughest courses in the world and taken him to the top of the highest mountains on every continent—all in his forties and fifties. Dubbed by Outside magazine as an Endurance King, he defies the ideas of “too far,” “too old,” and “not possible.” Revered among athletes, Marshall Ulrich is also an acclaimed speaker.

Flint Whitlock
Military Historian and Author
Coming from: Denver,  Colorado  USA
Flint Whitlock graduated from the University of Illinois in 1964 with a degree in art, but has always been as much a writer as an artist. His love for military history began at an early age. Wanting to serve his country, Flint was commissioned a 2nd Lt. through ROTC and served in Germany and Vietnam before retiring in 1970. He has authored 13 books (mostly on WWII), lectured on Viking, and guided WWII battlefield tours for the Smithsonian, National Geographic, and other tour operators.

Caroline Wickham-Jones
Archaeologist
FSA, FSA Scot, MCIFA
Coming from: Kirkwall,  Orkney  UK
Caroline is a consultant archaeologist living in Orkney. In 2015 she retired from lecturing in the Department of Archaeology at the University of Aberdeen. She is particularly interested in communities living in northern environments, from the Stone Age to the Viking Period. Her research has taken her to many remote communities from Arctic Norway to the Beagle Channel and Central Asia. Lecturing and communication is not just an important part of her work, it is something that she loves doing whether she is speaking to an academic audience or a local society.

Isobel Petrie Williams
Antarctic Explorer & Author
MD FRCP FRGS
Coming from: Essendon,  Hertfordshire  UK
During her medical training at St George’s Hospital, University of London, Isobel discovered that Edward Wilson, who died with Scott on the return from the South Pole in 1912, had qualified in the same hospital in 1900. His iconic paintings of Antarctica fired Isobel to research his life and the Heroic Age of Antarctic exploration. This interest continued throughout her busy medical career and on retirement, she published the biography of Edward Wilson. Isobel has made presentations on Antarctica and the Antarctic heroes for fifteen years to many different audiences including on cruise ships.

Jim Williams
Historian & Author
Frauds and Charlatans
Coming from: Stockport,    UK
Jim comes to lecturing with a background as a formerly practising barrister, a lawyer in the international construction industry and an internationally published author of eleven novels and two non-fiction works. One of the novels, The Hitler Diaries, caused a sensation when it was published nine months before the famous forgery scandal. Jim talks about his specialist knowledge of the history and practices of charlatans: the frauds and colourful characters who manage to persuade other people to believe in the most improbable things.